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Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy
(2006-2010-2020)

The Outline of the National Scheme for Scientific Literacy
(2006-2010-2020) is promulgated for implementation, in line with a range of initiatives produced at the 16th National Congress of Communist Party of China, and at the 3rd, 4th, and 5th plenary meetings of 16th CPC Central Committee. Both the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Popularization of Science and Technology and the Outline of the National Program for Long and Medium Term Scientific and Technological Development (2006-2020) are the base documents for preparing this Outline (hereinafter referred to as the Outline).
1. Prelude
Scientific literacy makes an important part of a citizen’s quality. The basic scientific literacy of citizens generally refers to knowing some necessary knowledge of science and technology, mastering basic methods of science, building up science thoughts, advocating science ethos and having the ability to apply them to resolve practical problems and participate in public affairs. Raising citizens’ scientific literacy is of great significance in strengthening their capability to acquire and apply knowledge of science and technology, improving their life quality, realizing the all-round development as well as enhancing China’s capacity for independent innovation, making an innovative country, pursuing comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development of the economy and society, and building a socialist harmonious society.

Previous surveys show that China has a large gap with the developed countries, in the context of citizens’ scientific literacy. In China, people’s scientific literacy is distinctly differed between the urban and the rural. The majority of the labor force has not reached a high level of scientific literacy. Most of the citizens have a low level on understanding of basic scientific knowledge, and even lower on the scientific ethos, scientific thoughts and scientific methods. Some unscientific concepts and behaviors exist universally, ignorance, fatuity and superstition still prevail in some areas. Citizens’ lower level of the scientific literacy has been one of the bottlenecks that have restrained the economic development and social progress of our country.
The capacity building of people’s scientific literacy shall be a basic part of sticking to a road of independent innovation with Chinese characteristics and making an innovative country, and shall be a social action led by the government, with an extensive participation of all the people in this country. Since the adoption of reform and opening-up policy, especially since implementing the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education, China has enjoyed an enhanced capacity of people’s scientific literacy. However, there are remaining numerous problems in the area. For example, China’s per capita education attainment level is lower than the world average. Long under the influence of exam oriented education, students have shown apparent problems in scientific literacy. China has not yet established a well functioned system for public and adult education. Citizens are not guaranteed to have an education that runs through their entire life. China has not yet established a long term mechanism for popularization of science and technology (hereinafter referred to as PST), with insufficient facilities, personnel, and funds. PST activities have not attracted great attention of China’s media, with a poor quality of coverage. The public service that is established to build up people’s scientific literacy remains far from meeting the social needs. Citizens’ initiatives for enhancing their own scientific literacy have not been fully mobilized.
The National Scheme for Scientific Literacy for all Chinese citizens is designed to promote the capacity building of Chinese people’s scientific literacy, through the development of science and technology education, communication and popularization. It strives to quickly and significantly raise people’s scientific literacy, aiming at the long term goal of making adult Chinese citizens to possess basic scientific literacy in the mid century. In this Outline, major objectives, missions, and measures have been proposed to stage a scientific literacy scheme for everyone during the 11th Five-Year Plan period, in line with the phase targets throughout 2020.
2. Policies and Goals
Guiding policies:
Under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development, efforts shall be made to enhance the capacity building of citizens’ scientific literacy, taking advantage of the lead role played by the government, and mobilizing everyone to be part of PST activities, in an attempt to promote a full-fledged economic, social, human development, to improve China’s independent innovation capacity and overall national strength, and to create a solid workforce foundation for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and for realizing the third strategic targets of the modernization drive.

In the coming 15 years, National Scheme for Scientific Literacy will work under the policy of “government boost , mass participation, raising scientific literacy, and promoting harmony”.

Government boost —— Governments at all levels shall make the capacity building of citizens scientific literacy an important part of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, with an enhanced leadership. Governments at all levels shall incorporate the Outline into their planning activities, formulating relevant policies and directives, with an increased investment from government sources. Efforts shall be made to facilitate the implementation of the Outline. All quarters of society shall fulfill their respective obligations, with more collaboration.

Mass participation —— Citizens are both the participants and beneficiaries of the capacity building of citizens’ scientific literacy. Efforts shall be made to mobilize the enthusiasm and initiative of all the Chinese citizens to engage them in the implementation of the Outline, creating an atmosphere of cherishing science, encouraging innovation, respecting knowledge, and respecting talented personnel.

Raising scientific literacy —— Raising citizens’ scientific literacy is the aim and outcome of the Outline. The implementation of the Outline will build China into a society in which every citizen is committed to learning and lifelong learning, and promoted all-round development.?

Promoting harmony —— Efforts shall also be made to implement the Scientific Outlook on Development, put people first, advocate fair-and-share of science and technology related education, communication, and popularization, promoting the all-round development of socialist material civilization, political civilization, and spiritual civilization, and building a harmonious society.

Goals:

By 2020, China will see an enhanced development of science and technology related education, communication, and popularization. It will establish a well functioned system, infrastructures, and conditions for the purpose, and establish a system for evaluating the capacity building of citizens scientific literacy. Citizens’ scientific literacy shall see a large improvement, reaching the early 21st century level of major developed countries.

By 2010, science and technology related education, communication, and popularization shall see a large develop
ment, with noticeably raised citizens’ scientific literacy, reaching the 1980s level of major developed countries. To address most important and fundamental issues concerning the capacity building of citizens’ scientific literacy, efforts shall be made to realize the following goals:?

—— Promote the establishment and implementation of the Scientific Outlook on Development. Efforts shall be made to raise the public awareness of a range of advanced concepts, including resources efficiency, ecological protection, environment improvement, work safety, emergency rescue, healthy lifestyle, rational consumption, and circular economy. Advocate the establishment of a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society, encouraging a life and work style that is scientific, civilized, and healthy.

—— Promote the enhancement of all Chinese citizens’ scientific literacy, led by the improvement of scientific literacy of selected populations in the first place. Raise minors’ interests and enthusiasm in science, and enhance their innovation awareness and associated practice capability. Meanwhile, efforts shall be made to raise the scientific literacy of farmers and urban workforce in a noticeable manner, gradually narrowing down the gaps between the urban and rural residents in scientific literacy. Leading cadres and public servants shall have a top level of scientific literacy among professionals.

—— Strengthen the fundamental facets of scientific literacy capacity building, including science education and training, developing and sharing PST resources, mass media’s science and technology communication capability, and PST related infrastructures. Citizens shall be given more opportunities and accessibilities to improve their scientific literacy.

3.Main Actions

During the 11th Five-year Plan period, China will mainly work on the following actions, in line with the guiding principle.

(1) Minors’ scientific literacy action

Missions:

—— Raise minors’ awareness of the Scientific Outlook on Development, focusing on China’s basic national situation, such as a large population, limited resources, and a per capita resources possession that is far lower than the world average, and making minors aware of the importance of harmonious coexistence of man and nature, and the sustainable development.

—— Improve science education at the primary education phase, raising the quality of science education at schools, making primary and middle school students familiar with needed basic scientific knowledge and skills, and allowing them to experience the process and method of scientific exploration activities. Efforts shall be made to foster a scientific attitude, passion, and sense of value among minors, developing their preliminary capability of scientific explorations, and enhancing their awareness of innovation and practice.
—— Popularize the compulsory education in the rural areas, raising the quality of science education at the rural primary and middle schools, providing more opportunity for the rural minors to be part of science outreach activity, and enhancing their capability of improving life, raising the quality of life, and personal development.

——Initiate science outreach activities and social practice in diverse forms, enhancing minors enthusiasm and interests in science and technology, allowing them to have some knowledge of the nature of science, and the relationship between science and technology and society. Enhance minors’ sense of social obligation, and capability of communication and cooperation, and of solving problems in an integrated manner using learnt knowledge.

Measures:

—— Promote the full-fledged implementation of new science course, through implementing the New Century Competence-oriented Education Project. More attention shall be paid to the integrity and consistence of courses, in line with the special needs of different age groups. Stage pre-school science enlightening education, and take effective measures to diffuse comprehensive science courses for the compulsory education. Gradually advance the reform of science courses at the senior high school. Deepen the reform of the teaching materials, contents, and teaching method of science courses at primary and middle schools. Reform the evaluation system of science education, and supervise the quality of science education on a regular basis, taking full advantage of the role played by modern education technologies.

—— Raise the science education level and quality of minors in the rural areas. Strengthen the capacity building of science education resources employed in modern distance education at rural primary and middle schools, in line with the practical situation of rural areas. Develop non-formal education activities for the minors outside the formal rural education system, and initiate science outreach activity aiming at improving minors’ living capability and working skills.

—— Organize extracurricular science and technology activities, and increase minors innovation awareness and useful skills. Diffuse the knowledge in the area of ecological environment protection, resources and energy efficiency, psychological and physical well-being, and safety and risk avoidance. Strengthen the public awareness of “cherishing life, and keeping away from drugs”, cherishing science and civilization, and opposing foolish superstitions. Take advantage of the unique roles played by minors in science outreach activities targeting at adult, through family and community.

—— Organize science outreach activities, allowing face-to-face opportunity between science and technology personnel and minors, through an array of initiatives, including Hand in Hand between Scientists and Adolescents and teenagers-science outreach actions for young people, science and technology experts being part of campus (communities. or PST centers), and middle school students visiting research institutes and labs.

—— Raise the scientific literacy of mothers, paying more attention to the important role played by parental education in raising minors’ scientific literacy.

—— Institutions and organizations such as press, publication, radio and television and culture should strength their effort on communication and popularization of science and technology, attract minors with excellent, beneficial and vivid PST works and create a favorable public opinion environment for the healthy growth of the minors.

—— Consolidate the science education resources outside the school, and establish an effective mechanism linking outside-school science and technology activities with school science courses. Improve minors’ scientific literacy, taking advantage of diverse education resources, including science and technology museums, research institutes, and other science and technology education bases. Strengthen the PST function of such comprehensive outside-school activity sites for the minors as the youth and pioneers’ palaces and children’s centers. Establish exclusive science and technology activity centers for children and youth where conditions permit. Taking advantage of the role played by community education in minors’ science education outside the school.

(2) Farmers’ scientific literacy action

Missions:?

—— Raise farmers’ awareness of the Scientific Outlook on Development, focusing on ecological environment protection, water resources efficiency, cropland protection, disaster prevention and preparedness, healthy lifestyle, eliminating bad habits, and opposing foolish superstitions. Create a fine atmosphere of talking, loving, learning and applying science in the rural areas, building a new socialist countryside.

—— Lift up farmers’ enthusiasm of being part of scientific literacy capacity building, focusing on scientific farming, efficiency improvement, and yield increase. Enhance farmers’ awareness of science and technology, raising their capability of collecting scientific and technological knowledge, becoming rich by using such knowledge, developing production activities, and improving quality of life. These activities shall be combined with the communication of practical technologies and the enhancement of farmers’ scientific literacy, in an attempt to foster up a new type of farmers who are educated and understand both agricultural techniques and business management.

—— Improve the employability of rural surplus labor transferring to non-agricultural sectors or cities and towns.??

—— Raise women’s scientific and cultural literacy in the rural areas, and farmers’ scientific and cultural literacy in the less developed areas in the west, ethnic autonomous areas, povertystricken and old revolutionary base areas.

Measures:

—— Establish a science education, awareness raising, and training system in the rural area that is rich in content, diverse in form, and demand meeting. Prepare an Action Plan for Establishing Farmers’ S&T Education and Training System, and The Outline for Chinese Farmers’ Scientific Literacy Education Planning, providing guidance for farmers’ science education activities.

—— Enhance farmers’ science and technology training. Initiate farmers’ science and technology training activities that are multi-channeled, well tailored, practical, effective, and easy-to-understand, in line with the modern distance education of the rural Communist Party cadres, the rural Communist grass-root cadres’ training program on applicable technology and the market economy knowledge and such special training programs as Green Certificate Project, Torch Training Program on science and technology, Double Learning and Double Competition Campaign and the Program to Enable Women to Become Rich. Efforts shall be made to produce 10 million farmers granted with the green certificate, one million science and technology demonstration households, and 20 million farmers benefited by the demonstration. Take full advantage of the roles in rural science and technology training activities, played by radio and TV schools, adult culture and technology schools, becoming
rich correspondence universities, and rural science and technology and network alliances, and other adult schools created by universities in the rural areas.

—— Initiate science outreach activities in diverse forms in the rural areas. Further enhance the coverage of traditional science outreach activities, including the combined culture, science and technology, and health projects for the rural areas, National Science Week(Day). popularize the proven practices, including S&T envoy system, S&T being part of households, S&T 110 hot line number, science winter (spring), science fair, experts’ yards, S&T consultation service stations, S&T masters into the countryside, rejuvenating a village through science and education. Establish a long term science and technology consultation mechanism allowing interactions between science and technology personnel and farmers.

—— Initiate science and technology and science outreach activities in the rural areas, and establish and improve the demonstrations. Deepen the capacity building of national S&T and PST pilot-counties(cities,districts,villages). Establish S&T and PST demonstration bases, taking full advantage of their roles in demonstration.

—— Initiate skill training activities targeting at surplus rural workforce. Establish and improve the training mechanism for the migration of rural workforce. Stage reorientation training, skill training, and on-the-job training for the rural migrant workers in urban areas, in line with the requirements of National Training Plan for Rural Migrant Workers (2003—2010).
—— Establish and improve the service network and team engaged in science and technology education, communication, and popularization in the rural areas. Develop institutions for the spread of agricultural technology, rural grassroots PST organizations, and farmer co-ops, supporting 10,000 rural professional technology associations. Initiate diverse activities to allow experts and volunteers to provide consultation services. Establish an effective mechanism to mobilize science and technology personnel to provide service for farmers. Develop the teamwork of farmer technicians, raising the learning, practice, and communication capability of rural experts.

—— Strengthen the PST capacity building at the rural grassroots level. Create village-level science outreach sites at rural primary and middle schools, village party member activity rooms, rural adult schools, cultural stations, some township enterprise, and rural professional technology associations. Promote the construction of rural science show windows and publication bullet boards. Develop and enrich tailored educational contents in line with actual needs. Strengthen the capacity building of science popularization teams in minority regions. Enhance the science outreach capacity of the west region, especially the remote and ethnic autonomous areas.

(3) Urban workforce scientific literacy action
Missions:
—— Raise people’s awareness of the Scientific Outlook on Development in the urban areas, focusing on communicating the knowledge of resources efficiency, environmental protection, work safety, and healthy lifestyle. Promote the change of economic growth modality, and advocate for a scientific, civilized, and healthy lifestyle.
—— Raise the scientific literacy of personnel working for the secondary and tertiary industries, in line with the demand for taking a new road toward industrialization, and developing modern services, focusing on learning capability, skills, and technological innovation capability, and allowing them to be well prepared for the economic and social develop
ment.
—— Raise rural migrant workers’ technical skills and their adaptation to urban life, in line with the demand for urbanization.
—— Raise unemployed people’s employment skills, and the capability of creating their own businesses and adapting to professional careers.
Measures:
—— Strengthen the macro-management of science and technology education and training targeting at workforce, focusing on planning, organizing, and implementing. Coordinate the efforts of involving government agencies, with a rational division of work and enhanced cooperation.
——Incorporate the basic scientific literacy that the workforce should acquire into the various vocational education and adult education courses and training textbooks. Incorporate the scientific literacy into national professional standards, and vocational training, examination, and evaluation.??
—— Initiate pre-work training, re-employment training, business creating training, rural migrant worker training, on-the-job training, and further education in diverse forms. Efforts shall be made to meet the following targets: 250 million person/time for on-the-job training, 15 million people re-employment training, and 200 million people rural migrant worker training. Efforts shall also be made to raise the proportion of pre-work training from current 70% to 90%.
—— Initiate science outreach and skill training activities in enterprises, establish learning groups, and advocate for being a knowledge oriented employee, focusing on scientific method, scientific thinking, and scientific spirit related education, and on raising employee’s scientific and cultural literacy. Encourage popular technological innovation and invention activities, taking full advantage of the roles played by industrial science associations, employees’ technology associations, and R&D centers.
—— Create the paid learning system for employees, encouraging on-the-job learning, in an attempt to establish an on-the-job training mechanism invested by both employer and employees. Enhance the part of scientific knowledge in the on-the-job training.
—— Optimize and consolidate education and training resources in diverse forms, establishing an education and training network featured with resources sharing, wide coverage, and multiple tiers. Create more opportunities and approaches for raising employees’ scientific literacy.
—— Stage diverse science outreach activities in urban communities, using the existing facilities, including PST activity room, science school and science galleries .Build up a learning oriented community, taking full advantage of the role played by such community in raising workforce’s scientific literacy.

(4)Leading cadres and public servant’s scientific literacy
action
Missions:
—— Raise leading cadres’ awareness of scientific and technological knowledge, focusing on scientific spirit, scientific attitude, and scientific method, enhancing the consciousness of implementing the Scientific Outlook on Development, and making decisions in a scientific manner.
—— Enhance leading cadres’ lifelong learning capability, and the capability of scientific management, along with other initiatives, including implementing the Scientific Outlook on Development, establishing a learning oriented government agency, and lifting public servants’ enthusiasm for scientific literacy enhancement.
Measures:
—— Make raising scientific literacy an important part of training programs and plans targeting at public servants, and at leading carders of public institutions or state-owned enterprises.

—— Make scientific literacy enhancement of leading cadres and public servants a part of the learning and training system, in the course of establishing a learning oriented government agency.

—— Make raising trainees’ scientific literacy a part of teaching program, at schools of administration and cadre academies at different levels, implementing the program through effective measures.
—— Initiate a range of science outreach activities, including seminars and lectures, and publish popular science books, allowing leading cadres and public servants to know the latest development of modern science and technology, and educating them with scientific thinking, scientific methods, and scientific spirit. And organize public servants to be involved in science outreach activities.
—— Newspapers, magazines, radio/TV, and the network sponsored by governmed shall create columns or programs for raising leading cadres and public servants’ scientific literacy.
—— Make scientific literacy part of the examination curricula and question database for public servant recruitment.
4. Infrastructure Projects
The following key projects will be implemented during the 11th Five-year Plan period, along with the above mentioned action plans.

(1) Science education and training project
Missions:
——Strengthen the capacity building of science teachers,
forming up a versatile and mixed teaching contingent with a rational composition, high quality, and appropriate qualifications.
—— Strengthen the preparation of educational materials, and reform teaching methods, creating educational materials and teaching methods in line with different needs, and with the requirements of science education and training.

—— Strengthen the construction of teaching infrastructures, taking full advantage of the existing teaching and training facilities and bases. Efforts shall be made to provide needed teaching instruments and equipment, and provide needed infrastructure support for science education and associated training.
Measures:
—— Strengthen the capacity building of science teachers at primary and middle schools. Initiate training programs for the science teachers in primary and middle schools, and rural adult continuing schools, through diverse channels, paying more attention to the training of the science teachers in primary and middle schools at the county level or below. Raise the qualification and capability of science teaching. Encourage normal universities to establish science education courses, producing science teachers with qualified professionalism.

—— Establish an effective mechanism to promote science education through the combined efforts of both science and technology and education community. Mobilize universities and research institutes to be involved in preparing teaching materials for primary and middle schools, teaching method reform, and science teacher training.?
—— Strengthen the capacity building of science education and training volunteers. Take full advantage of the roles played by veteran science and technology personnel associations, and veteran professor associations, mobilizing retired science and technology personnel, educators, public servants, and industrial managers to be part of science education and training. Form up a minor science tutor contingent, and raise the tutors’ quality and capability.
—— Strengthen the study of science education, and improve science courses, making science education a popular, basic, and dynamic course. Upgrade teaching contents, and improve the quality of science teaching materials of primary and middle schools. Improve teaching methods, and facilitate the change of learning modalities, focusing on awareness in innovation and practical capabilities.
—— Strengthen the capacity building of science teaching materials in the context of vocational education, adult education, and other training activities. Prepare science teaching materials, in line with the special needs of farmers, urban workforce, leading members, and public servants, focusing on the Scientific Outlook on Development, advanced and applicable technologies, professional skills, and modern science and technology knowledge. Pay more attention to the preparation of teaching materials in ethnic languages, and associated audio and video teaching materials.
—— Strengthen the capacity building of science infrastructures at primary and middle schools, especially in the rural areas. Establish and upgrade labs and libraries, in line with the need of science courses, providing needed experimental instruments, teaching tools, audio and video equipment, and computers. Such service shall also be made available to the public.
—— Enhance science education and training functions of administrative schools, cadre schools, universities, research institutes, vocational schools, correspondence schools, and radio/TV schools.
—— Advance science education and training by using public resources. Encourage and support the science education and training activities sponsored by science and technology museums, community colleges, and adult schools. Establish a properly distributed skill training network tailored to different occupations and jobs.
(2) PST resources development and sharing project
Missions:
—— Guide, encourage and support the development of PST products and information resources, prospering the writings of PST. Create high quality popular science works, in line with the implementation of the Scientific Outlook on Development, with the development of time and the market needs. Efforts shall be made to bring China’s popular science works to the international marketplace, changing the current one-way flow of foreign popular science works.
—— Integrate PST information resources both at home and abroad, and establish the sharing platform of national PST information resources, providing needed PST resources and service to the public.
Measures:?
—— Establish an effective incentive mechanism to promote the creation of original writing of PST. Enhance the support and incentives to fine original popular science works, in form of recognizing excellence and works collection. Attract all walks of life to be involved in creating popular science works. Mobilize the initiatives of science and technology personnel to create popular science works, their performance will be counted as part of their professional competence assessment. Establish a mechanism that will turn the latest science and technology findings and results into science education, communication, and popularization resources in a timely manner. Encourage and support science writing, taking full advantage of the roles played by science and technology communication professionals. Formulate favorable policies and regulations to attract more social forces to be part of the development of PST resources.
—— Strengthen cooperation and exchanges. Promote effective cooperation among PST, science and technology, education, and media, importing fine popular science works from abroad, learning advanced international concepts and methods in the area, and raising the overall level of China’s science writing.
—— Integrate diverse PST information, including books, journals, posters, audio-video products, teaching tools, literature, photos, and volunteers. Establish a digital PST information database, and a platform for sharing and exchanges. Provide PST related resources support and service to the public via internet.
—— Sponsor PST book fair, demonstration, and show. Expand sharing of PST information resources. Organize the composition and publication of concise and easy-to-understand PST materials, in line with the actual needs. Deliver them to the public in an accessible manner.

—— Formulate legislations, rules, and standards to protect intellectual property, creating a legal environment for fair utilization of public PST information resources.
(3)PST capacity building promotion project for mass media?
Missions:
—— Enhance the science and technology communication capacity of major media. Increase radio and TV broadcasting time of science and technology programs, the varieties and circulation of PST publications, the number and page of science and technology columns in comprehensive newspapers, and science and technology columns in online portals and websites.

—— Forge media brands for science and technology communication, and raise the quality of science channels and columns. Develop science columns, special edition, PST books, audiovideo products, and e-publications enjoying a large reader population and popularity good reputation. Establish a number of PST presses with certain scale and influence.

—— Create and support a number of PST websites and visual museums/science and technology halls that produce a strong attraction to the online aliases, taking advantage of communication functions of internet and other novel media.

Measures:
—— Encourage and support the quality raising efforts of the existing TV science channels, including “Science Review”, “Science and Technology Limelight”, and “Science Wagon”, making them top media brands of extensive influence. Support the selected science and technology websites with special features and wide coverage.

—— Stage favorable policies and regulations for desired marketplaces, promoting commercial applications of PST industry.

—— Establish a management system and operational mechanism in line with marketplace and public demand, advocating the management concept with consumers as the core. Introduce modern marketing modalities and advanced compiling techniques, paying more attention to market survey, and raising the quality of broadcasting and publication.?

—— Establish a PST publication distribution channel in line with the market economy, strengthening the capacity building of websites, and supporting the distribution of PST publications in the rural, remote, and ethnic autonomous areas.

—— Raise the response of various kinds of mass media towards unexpected events related to the public health emergency and serious natural disasters and instructs the general public to deal with these unexpected events in a scientific manner
—— Develop new techniques and formats for online PST publications. Stage real-time, dynamic, and interactive online science outreach activities. Develop PST games with healthy contents in an attractive manner.
(4) PST infrastructure project
Missions:
—— Create and improve the science education function of the existing infrastructures. Transform and upgrade the existing science education infrastructures, allowing them to become an attractive platform providing rich contents and quality service, meeting the public needs for science outreach activities. Integrate relevant social resources, taking full advantage of the resources of science and technology research infrastructures, and developing teenagers’ science and technology education bases and PST bases.?

—— Raise money through different channels, and establish a number of science and technology and nature museums, under the prerequisite of a thorough feasibility study. Each cosmopolitan city under the direct jurisdiction of the central government, and each capital city of provinces or autonomous regions, shall be entitled to at least one large or medium sized science and technology museum. A large city with a permanent resident population reaching one million or more shall possess at least one science and technology museum. The reception capability of science and technology museums shall be enhanced in a significant manner.

—— Develop grassroots PST infrastructures. Efforts shall be made to establish science galleries, PST activity room, and online terminals in both urban and rural communities. Enhance science education functions of minors’ outside-school activity sites. The cities and counties where conditions permit may establish special PST sites. Selected cities and counties will be equipped with Science Wagons (mobile science museums), providing popular science service for the communities and schools in both rural and urban areas, especially in the poverty-stricken and remote areas.?

Measures:
—— Provide macro-guidance to the construction of PST infrastructures, focusing on the infrastructures of public good nature. Formulate development plan, construction standards, accreditation method, and management regulations for the construction of PST infrastructures. Regulate the construction and management of PST infrastructures.

—— Construction of PST infrastructures shall be incorporated into the national economic and social development plan, and the associated infrastructure construction plan. Increase state treasury’s appropriations to the construction and operation of PST infrastructures of public good nature.

—— Upgrade and transform the facilities with weak science education functions, enhancing the science functions of grassroots PST infrastructures. Import and develop PST activities in line with peoples needs, creating new activities and increasing attractiveness. Raise the management level and service quality. Enhance the functions of serving for the elder in community PST facilities, allowing them to “learn something, be happy, and do something”. Practice favors for minors and elders’ admission to PST sites.

—— Encourage all quarters of the society to participate in the construction of PST facilities. Promulgate and implement favorable policies, encouraging all quarters to donate and finance the construction of public good PST facilities. Absorb the investment from both home and abroad for the construction and management of PST sites. Where conditions permit, encourage the enterprises and institutions to construct special PST facilities in accordance with their specialties. Apply preferential taxation to encourage the development of PST undertakings, and to encourage private sectors being part of PST infrastructures construction.??

—— National teenagers’ science and technology education bases and PST bases shall be increased from current 300 to 500 in number, the bases at the provincial or ministerial level be increased from current 1,000 to 2,000. They shall be open to the public free of charge on a regular basis. Qualified research institutes, universities, and natural/social science organizations shall open their labs, showrooms, and other related sites to the public. Encourage high-tech enterprises open their research institutes and workshop to the public.

—— Nurture the marketplace of PST exhibitions and exhibits, promoting the commercial process of design and manufacturing. Formulate technical procedures, rules, and methods for accrediting designer and manufacturers. Support designers and manufacturers on a selected basis, raising their professional level.

5. Supporting conditions
(1) Policies and legislations?
Update the policies and legislations concerning citizens′
scientific literacy capacity building. Define the responsibility, rights, and obligations born by the government, social groups, enterprises, and individuals in citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building. Amend, supplement, and readjust the existing policies and legislations in line with changing situation.

——Describe the goals and requirements of citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building, in the national economic and social development plan, and in the legislations concerning science, technology, education and associated communication and popularization.

——Promulgate by-laws for implementing Law of P R C on PST

—— Formulate policies for encouraging and absorbing investment from both home and abroad, and from individuals for establishing education, communication and popularization institutions related science and technology.

—— Formulate commend and award policies.
(2) Funding
Increase the investment from both government and private sectors, through diverse measures and channels, securing fund guarantee for implementing the Outline.?

—— Enhance fund guarantee. Implement relevant provisions defined by the Education Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the Law of PRC on PST. Governments at various levels shall increase education and PST appropriations in a steady manner, in line with their actual financial capacity and citizens’ needs for scientific literacy capacity building. Incorporate the expense for PST into budget at the same level, in order to guarantee the smooth implementation of the Outline. State treasury shall, in line with its capacity, gradually increase the transfer payment to the locality. Governments at all levels shall allocate needed budget from the transfer payment to support the citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building.

—— Government agencies shall allocate needed funds for implementation. Authorities concerned, public institutions, and people’s organizations shall share their implementing budgets, in line with the fund raising and appropriation channels defined by the national budget management, and with their respective responsibilities and obligations defined by the Outline.

—— Encourage donation, and create more investment channels. Further update the policies and implementing methods concerning preferential taxation for the personal income tax derived from donated public good PST undertakings. Absorb institutional capital and individuals’ investment from both home and abroad, for citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building.
(3) Human Resources?
Nurture professionals, and tap up part time professionals. Establish a volunteer team. Strengthen the theoretical study in the area, providing human resources support for citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building.

—— Initiate diverse training and advanced learning activities. Strengthen professional training, and raise the scientific literacy and competence of the personnel who are currently engaged in science and technology related education, communication and popularization activities.

—— Nurture science and technology related communication and popularization professionals at universities and research institutes. Update the contents of related courses, and produce needed professionals for different PST sites.

—— Establish an effective mechanism and corresponding incentive measures, to mobilize science and technology personnel, university students, graduates, and retired people who used to work for science and technology, education, and media communities to be part of citizens scientific literacy capacity building, taking full advantage of their professional and technical expertise. This will lead to the formation of a strong contingent made up of high quality part time workers and volunteers. Incentives shall be granted to those who have made important contributions to citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building.

—— Enhance the sense of responsibility of science and technology communities, supporting science and technology personnel to be part of science education, and associated communication and popularization, and promoting the communication of cutting edge scientific knowledge.

—— Initiate the theoretical study of citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building, strengthening academic communication both at home and abroad, gasping the basic laws and international development trends, and providing guidance for citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building.
6. Organizing and implementation
(1) Leadership
—— The State Council will be responsible for the implementation of the Outline. It will establish a steering committee for implementing the Outline, working on the unified deployment and supervision. government agencies, public institutions, and NGOS shall, in line with the requirements of the Outline, make the given tasks part of their work plans or programs, fulfilling required obligations, giving their strength a full play, and working together to form up a strong force promoting citizens’ scientific literacy capacity building.

—— Governments at the local level shall incorporate citizens’ scientific literacy into their master plans for the economic and social development, and make the implementation of the Outline part of the governmental agenda, and part of track records checking.

—— Establish and improve the work mechanism for implementing the Outline. The steering committee office will be physically located at China Association for Science and Technology. The Office will be responsible for the daily activities of the panel, and report to the panel on a regular basis.

(2) Supervision and evaluation
—— Formulate Benchmark for Chinese Citizens’ Scientific Literacy. Work out the contents of basic scientific literacy a Chinese citizen shall possess, in line with the strategic goals of socialist modernization, China’s situation, and proven international experience. The benchmark will be served as a measurement and guide for the citizens to improve their own scientific literacy and as a foundation for the implementation, monitor and evaluation of the Outline
—— Establish an indicator system for measuring citizens’ scientific literacy and for monitoring the implementation of the Outline. It shall be part of the national indicator system for the social development.
—— Authorize independent evaluation firms to evaluate citizens’ scientific literacy, and implementation of the Outline, and to propose corresponding response strategies and suggestions.?

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